Allgemein

Climate Change Agreement Kyoto

The Paris Agreement, drawn up for two weeks in Paris at the 21st United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP21) on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and adopted on 12 December 2015 marked a historic turning point in the fight against global climate change, as world leaders representing 195 nations agreed on an agreement containing commitments from all countries to combat climate change and adapt to its impact. Since May 2013, 191 countries and a regional economic organization (EC) have ratified the agreement, representing more than 61.6% of schedule I emissions in 1990. [97] One of the 191 ratifying countries, Canada, has relinquished the protocol. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted as a first complement to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty that committed its signatories to develop national programmes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (PFC), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) influence the energy balance of the world`s atmosphere in a way that should lead to an overall increase in the average temperature of the planet known as global warming (see also the greenhouse effect). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization, the long-term effects of global warming would include a general rise in sea level around the world, resulting in the flooding of deep coastal areas and the eventual disappearance of some island states; melting glaciers, sea ice and arctic permafrost; an increase in the number of extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts, and changes in their distribution; and an increased risk of extinction for 20-30% of all plant and animal species. The Kyoto Protocol imposed binding emission reduction targets on most UNFCCC signatories through Schedule I (including members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and several countries with „transformational economies“), binding emission reduction targets that vary according to the particular circumstances of each country. Other signatories to the UNFCCC and the protocol, composed mainly of developing countries, were not required to limit their emissions. The protocol came into force in February 2005, 90 days after its ratification by at least 55 Annex I signatories who together accounted for at least 55% of total carbon dioxide emissions in 1990. The UN report warns that the terrible effects of climate change will come sooner than expected. This is why we need to follow the report`s advice and why every tonne of emissions reduction can make a difference. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement to control and reduce carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse gases.